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Calcium Silicate thermal insulation is defined by ASTM as insulation composed principally of hydrous calcium silicate, and which usually contains reinforcing fibers.
Calcium Silicate Pipe and Block Insulation are covered in ASTM C 533. The standard contains three types classified primarily by maximum use temperature and density.
Type Maximum Use Temp (°F) and Density
I Max Temp 1200°F, Max Density 15 pcf
IA Max Temp 1200°F, Max Density 22 pcf
II Max Use Temp 1700°F
The standard limits the operating temperature between 80° to 1700°F.
Illustration of calcium silicate insulation
Calcium Silicate Insulation Products
Calcium Silicate pipe insulation is supplied as hollow cylinder shapes split in half lengthwise or as curved segments. Pipe insulation sections are typically supplied in lengths of 36 inch, and are available in sizes to fit most standard pipe sizes. Available thicknesses range from 1" to 3" in one layer. Thicker insulation is supplied as nested sections.
Calcium Silicate block insulation is supplied as flat sections in lengths of 36", widths of 6", 12", and 18" and thickness from 1" to 4". Grooved block is available for fitting block to large diameter curved surfaces.
Special shapes such as valve or fitting insulation can be fabricated from standard sections.
Calcium Silicate is normally finished with a metal or fabric jacket for appearance and weather protection.
The specified maximum thermal conductivity for Type 1 is 0.41 Btu-in/(h·ft²·°F) at a mean temperature of 100°F. The specified maximum thermal conductivity for Types 1A and Type 2 is 0.50 Btu-in/(h ft² °F) at a mean temperature of 100°F.
The standard also contains requirements for flexural (bending) strength, compressive strength, linear shrinkage, surface-burning characteristics, and maximum moisture content as shipped.
Typical applications include piping and equipment operating at temperatures above 250°F, tanks, vessels, heat exchangers, steam piping, valve and fitting insulation, boilers, vents and exhaust ducts.
by W.M. Huitt
The potential for an accidental occurrence of a fire in a process facility or plant is something that is very much on the minds of folks that work in and manage these facilities as well as those of the community fire departments responsible for the protection of both personnel and property within and around such a facility. Incorporating fire safety into plant design takes on two fundamental goals: That of trying to prevent the occurrence of fire and the other to protect the initially uninvolved piping and equipment long enough for operations personnel to perform their duties and for emergency responders to get the fire under control. Fire has proven time and again its potential to initiate and develop rapidly into a catastrophic loss of capital and ultimately the loss of life. While it is impractical to expect to build a complex process plant facility, one that is expected to handle and process hazardous chemicals, to be completely safe from the potential of an accidental fire, it is reasonable to assume that certain aspects of design can certainly reduce that risk. While this is a fundamental topic that should be on the minds of the designers and engineers charged with the design of these facilities, it is certainly not a job for complacent minds. Designing facilities that use and store hazardous chemicals requires a more demanding set of requirements, at times beyond what can practically be written into Industry Codes and Standards. It is ultimately the responsibility of the Engineer of Record (EOR) and the Owner to fill in those blanks and to read between the lines of the adopted Codes and Standards to create a safe operating environment, one that minimizes the opportunity for fire and its uncontrolled spread and damage. (original article)
Two Flange Forging Operations
Considering All Movement in Pipe Support Design
By Angelique Geehan
December 21, 2010
Why consider movement in all three dimensions when choosing or designing pipe supports?
Movement, a major piping design consideration
Each component of a piping system has a job to do. Making sure a system can function correctly and efficiently requires that designers thoroughly account for each component's design from the conditions at installation (cold) to those during system operation (hot). One requirement of pipe supports, critical to every piping run, is that they accommodate pipe displacement, or movement, generated during operation without adding excessive stress to the overall system. Movement results from changes in temperature, load, or any other operating characteristics that affect the forces at play — whether inside the pipeline or in the environment surrounding the system.
Designers must always remember that movement can occur in three dimensions: axially, laterally (perpendicular to but in the same plane as the pipe), and vertically (usually parallel to the pipe support, in the plane connecting the pipe to the structural element). Failure to consider these movements could result in time-consuming and costly retrofitting or repair in addition to any labor and materials that might have been wasted, damaged, or lost. Also, designers must consider that any particular support might move more than would be reflected if only the starting and ending positions of components in a process cycle are examined. In other words, the extent of intermediate movements can and often does exceed the net movement.
Using pipe supports to accommodate movement
Pipe support assemblies can be classified according (original article)
Active support components