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A coker or coker unit is an oil refinery processing unit that converts the residual oil from the vacuum distillation column or the atmospheric distillation column into low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases, naphtha, light and heavy gas oils, and petroleum coke. The process thermally cracks the long chain hydrocarbon molecules in the residual oil feed into shorter chain molecules leaving behind the excess carbon in the form of petroleum coke.
This petroleum coke can either be fuel grade (high in sulphur and metals) or anode grade (low in sulphur and metals). The raw coke from the coker is often referred to as green coke. In this context, "green" means unprocessed. The further processing of green coke by calcining in arotary kiln removes residual volatile hydrocarbons from the coke. The calcined petroleum coke can be further processed in an anode baking oven in order to produce anode coke of the desired shape and physical properties. The anodes are mainly used in the aluminium and steel industry.
Hydrogen sulfide gas is found in petroleum and natural gas. Oil or natural gas is considered sour if it has a high percentage of hydrogen sulfide. Natural gas can contain up to 28 percent hydrogen sulfide gas, consequently, it may be an air pollutant near petroleum refineries and in oil and gas extraction areas. The principal source of anthropogenic hydrogen sulfide is as a by-product in the purification of natural gas and refinement of crude oil. Atmospheric releases of hydrogen sulfide represent the most significant public health concern for the geothermal energy industry.
Hydrogen sulfide gas is a naturally occuring chemical. The gas has a characteristic rotten egg odor at low concentrations. About half of the population can smell it at concentrations as low as 8 parts per billion (ppb) in air, and more than 90% can smell it at levels of 50 ppb. At higher concentrations, hydrogen sulfide rapidly deadens the sense of smell. For most people, this occurs at approximately 150 ppm.
Hydrogen sulfide is heavier than air, and it often settles in low-lying areas where it can accumulate in concentrations that can injure or kill livestock, wildlife, and human beings. Additionally, hydrogen sulfide has been found to migrate into surface soils and groundwater.
Pipe SupportsPipe is held either from above by hangers or supports of various types on which it rests. Hangers are also referred to as supports.
There are a number of typical pipe supports that can be installed to support dead weight loads, and restrain the pipe for thermal and dynamic loads.
The designs are only limited by the imagination of the engineer and designer, as literally thousands of different designs have been used for special purposes.
Pipe is rested on or secured to a support member usually of a standard structural shape (I-beam, wide flange beam, angle, channel etc.). The pipe may be secured to this member with a pipe support.
Pipe supports and hangers are devices which transfer the loads from the pipe or the structural attachment to the supporting structure or equipment. They include rod hangers, spring hangers, sway braces, turnbuckles, struts, anchors, saddles, rollers, brackets, and sliding supports. Structural attachments are elements that are welded, bolted, or clamped to the pipe, such as clips, lugs, clamps, clevises, and stops.
The correct and economical selection of the supports for any piping system usually presents difficulties of varying degrees, some relatively minor and others of a more critical nature. Proper support selection should be the objective of all phases of design and construction.
It is a good practice to select first the most simple or basic rigid support type and to add to the complexity only as conditions warrant. No advantage will be realized in upgrading a support when a simpler, more economical type can be shown to satisfy all the design requirements.
Both vertical and horizontal movement must be evaluated. When piping vertical movement is small, the use of simple rod hangers should be adequate. With small vertical movement and significant horizontal movement, the simple rod hanger will still suffice, provided the overall length is sufficient to keep the angular swing of the rod within reasonable limits-normally accepted as being 4° from the vertical.
When one is calculating the total movement experienced by the support, both horizontal displacements and the vertical displacement must be combined and normalized to the axis of the support. Consideration should be given to relocating the upper connection some percentage (usually two-thirds) of the total movement as a means for reducing the angularity in the hot position.
For piping supported from below, some form of slide must be incorporated to provide for the horizontal movement; or, in the case of ensured longitudinal movement, a pipe roll may be used. Rollers are usually only used on long runs of piping supported on racks such as found in refinery piping.
Suspended hangers with considerable horizontal movement and low headroom will require either single- or doubledirection trolleys or rollers. Where both longitudinal and lateral movements are large, consideration may be given to the use of a single-direction trolley oriented on the resultant movement vector.
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