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Laser scanning piping
Recently, renovations of plant equipment have been more frequent because of the shortened lifespans of the products, and as-built models from large-scale laser-scanned data is expected to streamline rebuilding processes. However, the laser-scanned data of an existing plant has an enormous amount of points, captures intricate objects, and includes a high noise level, so the manual reconstruction of a 3D model is very time-consuming and costly. Among plant equipment, piping systems account for the greatest proportion. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to propose an algorithm which could automatically recognize a piping system from the terrestrial laser- scanned data plant equipment. The straight common pipes, connecting parts, and connection relationship of the piping system can be recognized in this algorithm. Normal-based region growing and cylinder surface fitting can extract all possible locations ofpipes, including straight pipes, elbows, and junctions. Tracing the axes of a piping system enables the recognition of the positions of these elements and their connection relationship. Using only point clouds, the recognition algorithm can be performed in a fully automatic way. The algorithm was applied to large-scale scanned data of an oil rig and a chemical plant. Recognition rates of about 86%, 88%, and 71% were achieved straight pipes, elbows, and junctions, respectively.
Recently, because of the short lifespans of plant products, renovations of plant equipment have been more frequent. However, the results of the renovations are not necessarily recorded in the plant drawings in many cases. Thus, unintended collisions between existing equipment and newly designed ones often take place in the construction stage. This causes additional costs and labor.
The performance of terrestrial laser scanners has been rapidly developing, and shapes of objects in environments can be easily captured as 3D point clouds. With these laserscanned point clouds of existing plants, an as-built model of the plant equipment could be reconstmcted. Once the model is reconstmcted, the unintended works could be pre-checked on computers and avoided in the planning stage.
However, the laser-scanned data of existing plants have massive point clouds, include a large amount of noise, and capture tangled objects. Therefore, recognizing each plant component from the point cloud, including the tangled objects, and constructing a 3D model of the plants are nearly impossible or very time-consuming when done in an interactive way. Thus, automation of the recognition and 3D model construction processes from point clouds need to be strongly promoted in the plant engineering field.
Plants consist of many types of components. One of the more impoitant components is a piping system, which accounts for the greatest proportion and is renovated frequently. A piping system consists of various elements and their connection relationships: straight pipes, connecting parts such as junctions and elbows, and attached parts such as indicators and valves.
Several studies have been proposed ....(cont.)
The piping designer must be familiar with proper application of all types of valves including gate, globe, plug, butterfly, ball, angle, diaphragm, check, pressure relief, and control valves and their methods of operation including manual, chain, gear, air, hydraulic, or motor. The following general guidelines should be applied when locating valves in any piping system:
● Valves should be installed with the stems between the vertically upward and horizontal positions with particular attention given to avoiding head and knee knockers, tripping hazards, and valve stems in the horizontal plane at eye level that may be a safety hazard. Large motor-operated valves should be installed in the vertical upright position where possible to facilitate support and maintenance.
● Valves in acid and caustic services should be located below the plant operator’s eye level or in such a manner as to not present a safety hazard.
● The location of valves, with consideration for operating accessibility, should be accomplished in the natural routing of the system from point to point, avoiding the use of vertical loops and pockets.
● Valves in overhead piping with their stems in the horizontal position should be located such that the bottom of the handwheel is not more than 6.5 ft (2 m) above the floor or platform. Only infrequently operated valves should be located above this elevation, and then the designer should consider the use of a chain operator or a platform for access.
● Where chain operators are used, the valves should be located such that the chain does not present a safety hazard to the operating personnel.
● A minimum of 4 in (100 mm) of knuckle clearance should be provided around all valve handwheels.
● Valves should not be installed upside down.
● Space should be provided for the removal of all valve internals.
Improper application and placement of valves in the piping system can be detrimental to system function. This can result in malfunction of the valve and in waterhammer, and this can cause the valves to literally self-destruct. What follows are some specific recommendations and methods of avoiding these problems for some specific types of valves.
TWIC's aren't for kids
It is necessary to apply for and maintain an active Transportation Workers Identification Credential or TWIC card nowadays... or you're not going to get into the gate at the refineries. Back in the old days, before 9/11... all that was really needed was a security badge. The badge was plant-specific and was acquired after submitting to tests and the longest, most boring films you would ever want to sit through. But today, refineries are afraid that without a TWIC card, you may want to drive your vehicle at an extremely high speed, break through the main security gate and possibly take out their hydrocracker tower. Of course, that's not really something that I ever wanted to do, but there are those shoppers out there that may feel a certain resentment for not having made their per diem quotas.
You can apply for a TWIC card online, but must then schedule a live appointment with the TSA office nearest you. Generally a passport is the only identification required and the cost is $128 USD.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT ANSI/ISEA Z358.1-2014
The following information answers commonly asked questions regarding the requirements set forth in the ANSI/ISEA Z358.1-2014 standard. Questions not covered in this section or questions requiring an interpretation of the standard’s criteria should be addressed to the International Safety Equipment Association (ISEA).
Q: Does OSHA require compliance with the standard?
A: OSHA ‘s regulation 29 CFR part 1910.151(c) requires “Where the eyes or body of any person may be exposed to injurious corrosive materials, suitable facilities for quick drenching or flushing of the eyes and body shall be provided within the work area for immediate emergency use.” While the regulation itself does not specify the ANSI/ISEA Z358.1-2014 standard, the agency’s letters of interpretation and inspection manuals make reference to the ANSI/ISEA Z358.1 standard as a means for employers to comply with health and safety requirements. In addition, various states specifically reference the ANSI/ISEA Z358.1 document in their respective regulations.
Q: Does the standard tell me what type of equipment is needed for a specific hazard?
A: The standard does not provide application specific detail as to which types of equipment are required
given the presence of a particular hazard in a work environment. Users should conduct a job hazard
analysis and consult safety data sheets to assist with this decision. Another useful resource is the NIOSH
Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. In addition, equipment manufacturers are a valuable resource to assist in evaluating the precise needs of the work area.
Q: Are faucet mounted units compliant with the standard?
A: A faucet-mounted unit tested to and meeting the eyewash requirements may be considered to be
compliant with the standard. It is critical to ensure these are properly installed to prevent hot water from being delivered to the eyes, which can create further damage to the eye tissue.
Q: How does the “no more than 10 seconds” requirement translate into distance?
Eyewash and shower stations must be in accessible locations that require no more than 10 seconds to
reach. The average distance travelled by most able-bodied persons in 10 seconds is approximately 55 feet. Special consideration should be given to employees with disabilities, and for work areas with highly injurious materials. The emergency shower shall be located on the same level as the hazard and the path of travel shall be free of obstructions that may inhibit its immediate use.
Q: What are the eyewash and emergency shower design considerations for
accommodating those with disabilities?
Some important dimensions for accessibility are: height of eyewash heads, eyewash knee clearance and height of shower valve handle. Consult with an ISEA member manufacturer for accessible equipment options.
Q: Do I need dust covers on the eye washes?
Dust covers on eyewash heads are required to prevent build-up of particulates, which could enter the eye. Eyewash dust covers are designed to extricate themselves as soon as water flows from the outlet.
ISEA SELECTION, INSTALLATION AND USE GUIDE EMERGENCY EYEWASH AND SHOWER EQUIPMENT
Q: Do I need my eyewash/shower device third-party certified after installation?
No. Third party certification is obtained by manufacturers of eyewash and shower equipment. ISEA
members built this requirement into the standard to demonstrate their commitment to quality and end user safety.
Q: Where will tepid water come from?
Tepid water can come from different sources. Temperatures in excess of 38°C (100°F) have
proven to be harmful to the eyes and can enhance certain chemical interaction with the skin and
eye tissue. Recent information indicates that a temperature of 16°C (60°F) is suitable for the
lower parameter for tepid flushing fluid without causing hypothermia to the equipment user.
Q: I have heard about ASSE 1071. What is it?
The American Society of Sanitary Engineering (ASSE) standard 1071 sets performance requirements for temperature activated mixing valves used in conjunction with emergency equipment. Local plumbing
codes may require mixing valves be compliant with ASSE 1071.
Q: What do I do with waste water?
Consult your local authorities for assistance with applicable regulations. Consideration should be given to the proper disposal of waste flushing fluids from operating emergency eyewash and shower equipment.
Freezing temperatures, drainage, elevated showers and pollutants are some, but not all, of the
How meter runs work
Reasons to Insulate Piping
Insulations for commercial and industrial systems are generally divided into three categories:
Thermal – suitable for temperatures from -100°F to 1200°F
Cryogenic – suitable for temperatures below -100°F
Refractory – suitable for temperatures above 1200°F
Installing Pipe Wrap
Conserves Energy by Reducing Heat Loss or Gain
Properly designed and installed fiber glass, rock wool, and slag wool insulation systems immediately reduce the need for energy, a costly ingredient of every product made.
Controls Surface Temperatures for Personnel Protection and Comfort
Fiber glass, rock wool, and slag wool insulation systems reduce the surface temperature of piping and equipment to a safer level, resulting in increased worker safety and the avoidance of worker downtime due to injury.
Facilitates Process Temperature Control
By reducing heat loss or gain, fiber glass, rock wool, and slag wool insulation can help maintain the process temperature to a pre-determined value. Insulation thickness must be sufficient to limit the heat loss in a dynamic system or limit the temperature drop, with time, in a static system.
Prevents Condensation on Cold Surfaces
Specifying sufficient insulation thickness with a good vapor retarder is the most effective means of controlling condensation and limiting corrosion on cold piping, ducts, chillers, and roof drains. Sufficient thickness is needed to keep the outer most surface temperature above the dewpoint temperature of the ambient air.
Prevents or Reduces Damage to Equipment From Exposure to Fire or Corrosive Atmospheres
When used in combination with other materials, fiber glass, rock wool, and slag wool insulation help provide fire protection in firestop systems, grease- and air-duct fireproofing, and electrical and communications conduit and cable protection.
Controls Noise and Vibration
Special or standard insulation materials can be used to encase or enclose a noise or vibration-generating source, forming a sound and vibration barrier between the source and the surrounding area.