You will be a better piping designer for visiting PIPEDESIGN.COM on a regular basis. There are different tutorials relating to industrial piping design and the widest selection of 3D AutoCAD blocks available to dress up your big model reviews. There is state-of-the-art design software called PiperSuite; there are books, a blog, a piping specific forum, piping design jobs and there are links to websites most used by piping designers.
Lee's Technical Corner
My last few projects have been low budget, no survey team, minimum field support, and no one available to assist in field data gathering. Sometimes you have good drawings of the existing units, but often you need to sketch the whole thing. So, here is a few hints on setting up your sketch and establishing a baseline for dimensions.
1. Check the area for structure, be it piperack, platforms, equipment, fencing, etc., and use as your sketch baseline. If there is some distance between them, use colored twine to stretch between to measure to. Use duct tape to tape the twine to the structure to make sure it doesn't slide down or slip off. You'll probably need to verify north/south line baseline. Also make sure that you establish the baseline at a known height of concrete pad or structure.
2. Sketch all the items that you need in your project plan to adequately make your modification to. Note where drains and sewers are, power lines and boxes, manways and access points to the area, and any nozzle and tie-in points that you need.
3. With you baseline established, start pulling measurements to it. If you have a partner, this should go fast with one holding the tape and one reading measurements and taking notes. Most of the time, I'm doing this alone, so I use magnets to hold the tape in place or have magnetic tips on my tape. I keep several of each in my field bag. Just a note, if you do use magnets, keep them in a separate bag and away from you laptop bag and portable drives. I usually check this bag at the airport to keep from taking it through security. My field bag not only has magnets, but multi-tools, stakes, d-clips, mirrors, flashlights, markers, survey tape and colored duck tape, several rolls of twine, several plumb Bob's, tennis ball, torpedo levels, line levels, dry eraser board and markers, and grease markers and Sharpies. I also have a tape that is for measuring diameters of pipe, so if I have a question in the piping I am looking at, I can verify with it or measure the circumference of the pipe to get the OD. Yep, it weights about 35 pounds when I add my winter FRP, hard hat, FRP rain gear, and gloves.
4. To keep your self square in measurements, pull from the object to your baseline. You'll (cont.)
Gas flares in plants
A gas flare, alternatively known as a flare stack, is a gas combustion device used in industrial plants such as petroleum refineries, chemical plants, natural gas processing plants as well as at oil or gas production sites having oil wells, gas wells, offshore oil and gas rigs and landfills.
In industrial plants, flare stacks are primarily used for burning off flammable gas released by pressure relief valves during unplanned over pressuring of plant equipment. During plant or partial plant startups and shutdowns, flare stacks are also often used for the planned combustion of gases over relatively short periods.A great deal of gas flaring at many oil and gas production sites has nothing to do with protection against the dangers of over-pressuring industrial plant equipment. When petroleum crude oil is extracted and produced from onshore or offshore oil wells, raw natural gas associated with the oil is produced to the surface as well. Especially in areas of the world lacking pipelines and other gas transportation infrastructure, vast amounts of such associated gas are commonly flared as waste or unusable gas. The flaring of associated gas may occur at the top of a vertical flare stack (as in the adjacent photo) or it may occur in a ground-level flare in an earthen pit. Preferably, associated gas is reinjected into the reservoir, which saves it for future use while maintaining higher well pressure and crude oil producibility.
When industrial plant equipment items are over-pressured, the pressure relief valve is an essential safety device that automatically release gases and sometimes liquids. Those pressure relief valves are required by industrial design codes and standards as well as by law.The released gases and liquids are routed through large piping systems called flare headers to a vertical elevated flare. The released gases are burned as they exit the flare stacks. The size and brightness of the resulting flame depends upon the flammable material's flow rate in joules per hour (or btu per hour).
Most industrial plant flares have a vapor-liquid separator (also known as a knockout drum) upstream of the flare to remove any large amounts of liquid that may accompany the relieved gases.Steam is very often injected into the flame to reduce the formation of black smoke. When too much steam is added, a condition known as "over steaming" can occur resulting in reduced combustion efficiency and higher emissions. To keep the flare system functional, a small amount of gas is continuously burned, like a pilot light, so that the system is always ready for its primary purpose as an over-pressure safety system.
A knockout drum to remove any oil and/or water from the relieved gases.
A water seal drum to prevent any flashback of the flame from the top of the flare stack.
An alternative gas recovery system for use during partial plant startups and/or shutdowns as well as other times when required. The recovered gas is routed into the fuel gas system of the overall industrial plant. A steam injection system to provide an external momentum force used for efficient mixing of air with the relieved gas, which promotes smokeless burning.A pilot flame (with its ignition system) that burns all the time so that it is available to ignite relieved gases when needed. The flare stack, including a flashback prevention section at the upper part of the stack. There is also a safe method to divert the flare gas which is insertion of Liquid U seal with Liquid Hold up vessel. The Liquid U seal is designed to take pressure up to permitted back pressure of the system. This helps to divert the flare gas to recovery system. In case of plant upset, pressure rises and liquid in the U seal will move into Liquid Hold up vessel. On normalization, the Liquid U seal will start diverting the gas again.
The piping designer must be familiar with proper application of all types of valves including gate, globe, plug, butterfly, ball, angle, diaphragm, check, pressure relief, and control valves and their methods of operation including manual, chain, gear, air, hydraulic, or motor. The following general guidelines should be applied when locating valves in any piping system:
● Valves should be installed with the stems between the vertically upward and horizontal positions with particular attention given to avoiding head and knee knockers, tripping hazards, and valve stems in the horizontal plane at eye level that may be a safety hazard. Large motor-operated valves should be installed in the vertical upright position where possible to facilitate support and maintenance.
● Valves in acid and caustic services should be located below the plant operator’s eye level or in such a manner as to not present a safety hazard.
● The location of valves, with consideration for operating accessibility, should be accomplished in the natural routing of the system from point to point, avoiding the use of vertical loops and pockets.
● Valves in overhead piping with their stems in the horizontal position should be located such that the bottom of the handwheel is not more than 6.5 ft (2 m) above the floor or platform. Only infrequently operated valves should be located above this elevation, and then the designer should consider the use of a chain operator or a platform for access.
● Where chain operators are used, the valves should be located such that the chain does not present a safety hazard to the operating personnel.
● A minimum of 4 in (100 mm) of knuckle clearance should be provided around all valve handwheels.
● Valves should not be installed upside down.
● Space should be provided for the removal of all valve internals.
Improper application and placement of valves in the piping system can be detrimental to system function. This can result in malfunction of the valve and in waterhammer, and this can cause the valves to literally self-destruct. What follows are some specific recommendations and methods of avoiding these problems for some specific types of valves.
Laser scanning piping
Recently, renovations of plant equipment have been more frequent because of the shortened lifespans of the products, and as-built models from large-scale laser-scanned data is expected to streamline rebuilding processes. However, the laser-scanned data of an existing plant has an enormous amount of points, captures intricate objects, and includes a high noise level, so the manual reconstruction of a 3D model is very time-consuming and costly. Among plant equipment, piping systems account for the greatest proportion. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to propose an algorithm which could automatically recognize a piping system from the terrestrial laser- scanned data plant equipment. The straight common pipes, connecting parts, and connection relationship of the piping system can be recognized in this algorithm. Normal-based region growing and cylinder surface fitting can extract all possible locations ofpipes, including straight pipes, elbows, and junctions. Tracing the axes of a piping system enables the recognition of the positions of these elements and their connection relationship. Using only point clouds, the recognition algorithm can be performed in a fully automatic way. The algorithm was applied to large-scale scanned data of an oil rig and a chemical plant. Recognition rates of about 86%, 88%, and 71% were achieved straight pipes, elbows, and junctions, respectively.
Recently, because of the short lifespans of plant products, renovations of plant equipment have been more frequent. However, the results of the renovations are not necessarily recorded in the plant drawings in many cases. Thus, unintended collisions between existing equipment and newly designed ones often take place in the construction stage. This causes additional costs and labor.
The performance of terrestrial laser scanners has been rapidly developing, and shapes of objects in environments can be easily captured as 3D point clouds. With these laserscanned point clouds of existing plants, an as-built model of the plant equipment could be reconstmcted. Once the model is reconstmcted, the unintended works could be pre-checked on computers and avoided in the planning stage.
However, the laser-scanned data of existing plants have massive point clouds, include a large amount of noise, and capture tangled objects. Therefore, recognizing each plant component from the point cloud, including the tangled objects, and constructing a 3D model of the plants are nearly impossible or very time-consuming when done in an interactive way. Thus, automation of the recognition and 3D model construction processes from point clouds need to be strongly promoted in the plant engineering field.
Plants consist of many types of components. One of the more impoitant components is a piping system, which accounts for the greatest proportion and is renovated frequently. A piping system consists of various elements and their connection relationships: straight pipes, connecting parts such as junctions and elbows, and attached parts such as indicators and valves.
Several studies have been proposed ....(cont.)
Flange Isolation Kits
Flange Isolation Kits are designed to work in conjunction with our isolating gaskets to effect the complete electrical isolation of a flanged assembly. The Isolation Kits consist of one full-length isolating sleeve, two isolating washers and two steel washers for each of the bolts in the flange assembly. The purpose of the isolating sleeves is to electrically separate the bolts from each side of the flange, while the isolating washers provide electrical isolation for each of the nuts attached to the bolts. This method of isolation provides the user with a high-reliability solution to complete the electrical isolation of a flanged joint.
Flange Isolation Kits consist of an isolating gasket and isolating sleeves and washers which are all correctly sized for the application and conveniently packaged to minimize the possibility of lost component parts during installation. Isolating gaskets may be specified as either “E” or “F” type while single, double or one-piece sleeve and washer sets are offered as options for varying degrees of electrical isolation between the flanges. In addition, a wide variety of material options exist for both isolating gaskets and sleeve and washer materials.
Gasket Seal sealing gaskets are considered to be one of the most effective methods for sealing mating surfaces of all types. The gasket consists of two molded half “O” rings (with precise crown to void ratio) mounted in grooves on opposite sides of a retainer.
While maintaining all the advantages of a full “O” ring seal, the half “O” rings eliminate the need for sealing grooves in the mating surfaces which also eliminates positioning and alignment concerns. GasketSeal gaskets are available in a wide variety of retainer and sealing element combinations for matching gaskets to service and environmental conditions.
The flange faces come into contact with the crown of the sealing elements. As the flange is tightened the crowns are compressed into the molded-in voids in the sealing elements, resulting in a seal that will maintain positive, dynamic contact against the flange faces under all conditions.
After Tightening The flange faces have come into firm contact with the retainer, thus encapsulating the sealing elements within grooves and guarding them from exposure to external environments or internal media. At the same time, the elastic memory characteristics of the confined sealing elements results in zero “m” and “y” factors, making it possible to effect and maintain a positive seal at the lowest possible compressive load.
TYPE E GASKET
The gasket retainer extends out to the O.D. of the flange. Holes are cut in a type “E” gasket at the bolt circle to accommodate threaded studs or bolts.
There are a number of factors to be considered, but the first scenario is most likely not an application. The reason for this is the position of the metals in the galvanic series. Ductile iron and steel are considered to be close galvanically. Corrosion is more of a concern when the metals are far apart galvanically. PVC also does not conduct electricity.
Factors that will come into play will be: geometric factors, fluid electrolyte properties, flow rate, surface condition of the pipe metals, buried piping, etc.. The question is, will there be an expectation of significant metal loss. The answer may come from operating experience.
The second scenario is probably not an application either. Isolation flange kits are for isolating pipelines that have Cathodic protection. An insulating flange arrangement may be necessary if the fluid conductivity warranted it or you had dissimiliar metals. Reliability and maintenance issues should also be evaluated.
Application of Flange Insulation kits
•To limit the extent and cost of cathodic protection current to only those pipes that need to be protected from the main cathodic protection system.
•To electrically "split up" long pipelines into distinctive cathodic protection systems.
•To isolate a pipeline to ensure that cathodic protection or stray electricity currents do not cause increased corrosion, or cause a hazard.
•To isolate piping systems where dissimilar metals are present.
•To eliminate static loading charge transfer in discharge or loading operations at oil storage terminals.
Expansion joints in piping
Reasons to Insulate Piping
Insulations for commercial and industrial systems are generally divided into three categories:
Thermal – suitable for temperatures from -100°F to 1200°F
Cryogenic – suitable for temperatures below -100°F
Refractory – suitable for temperatures above 1200°F
Installing Pipe Wrap
Conserves Energy by Reducing Heat Loss or Gain
Properly designed and installed fiber glass, rock wool, and slag wool insulation systems immediately reduce the need for energy, a costly ingredient of every product made.
Controls Surface Temperatures for Personnel Protection and Comfort
Fiber glass, rock wool, and slag wool insulation systems reduce the surface temperature of piping and equipment to a safer level, resulting in increased worker safety and the avoidance of worker downtime due to injury.
Facilitates Process Temperature Control
By reducing heat loss or gain, fiber glass, rock wool, and slag wool insulation can help maintain the process temperature to a pre-determined value. Insulation thickness must be sufficient to limit the heat loss in a dynamic system or limit the temperature drop, with time, in a static system.
Prevents Condensation on Cold Surfaces
Specifying sufficient insulation thickness with a good vapor retarder is the most effective means of controlling condensation and limiting corrosion on cold piping, ducts, chillers, and roof drains. Sufficient thickness is needed to keep the outer most surface temperature above the dewpoint temperature of the ambient air.
Prevents or Reduces Damage to Equipment From Exposure to Fire or Corrosive Atmospheres
When used in combination with other materials, fiber glass, rock wool, and slag wool insulation help provide fire protection in firestop systems, grease- and air-duct fireproofing, and electrical and communications conduit and cable protection.
Controls Noise and Vibration
Special or standard insulation materials can be used to encase or enclose a noise or vibration-generating source, forming a sound and vibration barrier between the source and the surrounding area.